Revue des Sciences Politiques Nr. In the second part the author highlights and analyzes some of the issues of the relation between the Romanian education system during the interwar period and national minorities from Transylvania. Keywords: national minorities, inter-ethnic relations, education system, confessional education, Romanianization, Hungarianization.
In practice. One can discuss on the presence relation to the majority, the minority group of ethnic, linguistic, religious minority groups is in a position of numeric inferiority and even from the antiquity, perpetuating till from this its social, political, cultural, of the present moment.
Since the establishment statute and social role. The determining, of the national state, during the modern discriminating element is of a quantitative, period, national minorities have been numeric nature, and in no instance of appeared, fact which would amplify and qualitative nature or value. Today one a segment of the population which exceeds can speak of a great diversity of minorities, all the other segments2. Understanding the issue of national minorities in the 7 Revista de tiine Politice.
Ethnic the time. He tried the same language, way of living, tra- to apply this concept to the new state- ditions, behaviour, religious belief, culture. National ponents which render the group the feeling minorities were circumscribed both to the of belonging and that of being different state and to majority nations.
An attempt to define feeling of solidarity which allows it to keep the concept was made by Helmes Rosting, its culture, tradition, religion or language5. The respective definition does the documents of the Council of Europe.
Moreover, even fromown cultural, linguistic, religious identity, Jacques Duparc, referring to the definition which they conserve, take part to the political of the concept of minority, appreciated that life of the respective state through their it is an abstract notion which does not own organizations and bodies, but also imply the existence of determinant features, through the organizations and bodies of but a juridical relation, whose meanings the state they belong to, trying to warts removal home remedy in tamil, varied within a certain poque and within through dialogue, political way, and, in a certain geographical area4.
It 8 Revista de tiine Politice. From huma- between them, determined by a series of nitarian, democratic principles, in order to measures: the abolition of national borders, solve the new European political reality, to free movement of persons, the possibility prevent the possible conflicts, abuses of to work and establish the place of residence the majority against the minority, to in any part of the EU, to participate in the obviate the arguments among the states social-political life of the residing community, which had national minorities and the to be represented, single currency, common latters mother-states, the political and Community institutions.
The European Union diplomatic world of the great European turned motherlands of EU states into the powers tried to offer protection to national motherland of the states. Many of the minorities through international treaties, causes which generated and fuelled conflicts, warts removal home remedy in tamil them under the League of Nations tensions between the majorities and guarantee.
The independence of the states minorities have vanished or do not find succeeding the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, their place within the new reality and among which was Romania, was conditioned, social-political organization. Through the along with the signing of the Peace Treaty, creation of the European citizenship the by the signing of a Treaty of the Minorities differences between majority and minority through which they bound themselves to tend to wipe out and the possible harshness ensure minorities equal treatment to that of the between them tends to disappear.
Under majority. Such a measure lead to different no circumstance are they perceived anymore, reactions among the succeeding states which or understood according to their ancient were forced warts removal home remedy in tamil sign it, Romania having the meanings.
On the contrary, in some EU most visible reaction of opposition warts removal home remedy in tamil it. Member States, minority groups tend to get Prime-Minister Ionel Brtianu claimed that, a different meaning, that is of immigrant as regards Romania, the minorities issue groups which are constituted of Community was solved as the latter had equal rights to non-citizens, distinct both from the majority the majority.
Being pre-occupied with untreated hpv throat cancer from national minorities, and have as rendering full independence and sovereignty purpose to acquire the status of Community to Romania, of stating equal principles and citizen and all that the latter implies and applicable to all Member States of the devolves upon somebody.
League of Nations, the Romanian prime- For the first time, ethnic minorities of minister highlighted: Romania would not language, race and religion have become a admit a special treatment that does not social and political issue, transferring also apply to all other sovereign states no in the field of international relations, since matter their size and position, as in such the signing of the Peace Treaties of Paris matters there are no great and small states, The Peace Conference should states that would subject to the first we have found the answer and hepatic cancer symptoms for understand to have here within the kingdom, the new political reality which appeared as much freedom and independence as in following the First World War through the any other great sovereign authority6.
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The education system, the situation incompatible to the dignity we principles, values and language in which it claim for our state8 the Romanian prime- unfolded can have a contradictory action minister argued referring to the signing of in relation to minorities.
On the one hand, the Treaty of the Minorities. In return, the absolutization of edu- to threats and blackmail, warts removal home remedy in tamil determine cation in the minorities maternal language Ionel Brtianu to leave the Peace Conference can give birth to a discrimination process, proclaiming the resistance policy.
Such of social inequality with the majority, can a situation was viewed and interpreted lead to their isolation and marginalization, differently by the Romanian political class, to the impossibility of their participating to the opposition accusing him of lack of the social life, to the promotion of their political and diplomatic tact, of putting in own aspirations and ideals, to showing danger the relations with the great powers, their own human fund to advantage.
Such with his own allies and supporters of the a policy can lead to the appearance of Great Union. In such a situation, Ionel tensions and animosities between majority Brtianu quit.
Encouraged by the attitude and minorities, to the annulment of dialogue of some successor states of the empire and communication, to social and ethnic such as Poland, which on July 26th, conflicts. Romanian authorities wished to taking into account any proposition and make out of education an element of warts removal home remedy in tamil, promoting its own politics, decided to sign of liaison of the newly established state, of the Treaty on September 10th,putting dialogue and communication with all its Romania and other successor states before citizens, of putting the latter in state of the completed fact.
The new government equality in all the domains of social life.
Putting education under the control of Romanian authorities and 10 Revista de tiine Politice. The Constitution of promoted by Hungary with the support ofin use, was completely obsolete, Hungarian Transylvanian leaders. All national minorities were ensured of opposition, of counterpoint towards primary, secondary, private, confessional the Romanian authorities; or public education in their maternal - the political instability until had language, thus having the possibility to ended since the beginning of the liberal conserve their identity, cultural, linguistic, governance.
In order to put national As a consequence, until the adoption minorities in a state of equality with the of the Constitution of and of the majority and to ensure the dialogue and education laws ofthere was a period warts removal home remedy in tamil with all their citizens, to of transition, of cohabitation of the edu- remove any possibility of isolation, mar- cation systems form the Ancient Kingdom ginalization one ensured the study of the with the ones from the united provinces.
Romanian language at all education cycles The unification of the education and forms, still an aspect which gave birth system on the entire territory of Romania to disputes and controversies in the rela- was a necessary process, a condition for tions to the German and Hungarian minorities. A first problem constituted in the and sovereignty. A second problem was the diminish mocratic education system, under the con- in the percentage of confessional education trol and coordination of the state.
Such a and the growth of the public, laic education, measure was absolutely necessary warts removal home remedy in tamil, being under the states control and coor- followingin the United Romania dination.
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warts removal home remedy in tamil As a reaction to the fact in the Romanian language, not financing that public education passed under the state confessional schools etc. During the period the 3. A third problem was represented by number of confessional schools increased the imposition of the Romanian language from to The numeric growth of in the entire education system, no matter its confessional schools was determined by form, level, proportion of minorities, warts removal home remedy in tamil.
For the including of the Hungarianized Romanians; two minorities from Transylvania, the the association of education and religious Germans and the Hungarians, the purposes freedom could be a motive of the clerics in and objectives followed through the oppo- their protests both internally and inter- sition towards the imposition of the Romanian nationally, religious freedom being a very language were different: the German minority sensitive element and with high audience wished to keep its cultural, religious, to the public opinion; the use of confessional national identity.
In return, the leaders of schools as centres of propaganda and anti- the Hungarian minority conferred it strong Romanian agitation, in the accomplishment political connotations, turning it into a of Hungarys irredentist policies. Warts removal home remedy in tamil permanent motif of internal protest, but of these, the Hungarian minority, mostly, mostly international.
This is why the Hungarian lead cancer pancreatic head removal home remedy in tamil children towards confessional edu- warts removal home remedy in tamil spoke of the Romanian cultural cation, turning roundabout the public one, offensive of de-nationalization, the peril the Romanian state reacted towards the of minorities disappearance, Romania- increase in the number of confessional nization etc.
Negulescu control of the education legislation adoptedbut mostly C. Angelescu after ; the interdiction of subscribing, considered that the to these institutions of pupils of a different imposition, knowledge and use of the religion and confession than that of the Romanian language in this important field ethnic group that created and supported of the social life had as purpose the them; the obligation of the use of the following: the consolidation of the Romanian 12 Revista de tiine Politice.
Minorities assimilation union; the unification and functioning of has become state politics during the education at the level of the entire country; governments of Tisza Klnean, Banffy ensuring equality and possibilities of Dezso and Tisza Istvan. School and its affirmation of all its citizens, no matter the institutions were politicized, especially nationality, means of dialogue, communication during Minister Albert Apponyi, having as warts removal home remedy in tamil participation in the social life of all purpose the creation of the Hungarian Romanian citizens; the diminish in the unitary nation, of Hungarian conscience possibilities of using propaganda materials and identity which were based on the idea having irredentist purposes coming from of Hungarian citizenship according to Hungary and having access to the great mass which all individuals, no matter their of Hungarians; ceasing the process of ethnicity, compulsorily belong as citizens Hungarianization of Romanians from the to the unitary Hungarian nation.
The fourth issue, in close connection avoiding the control by and contacts with to the imposition of the Romanian language Romanian authorities and their policies, of was the de-politicization of education. During the whole period of dualism, Through the education laws created the Hungarian kingdom had as main starting withthe law of public, objective towards minorities their de- private, confessional education, of the nationalization, their Hungarianization.
In school-leaving examination, the Bucharest this sense, it used politics and imple- authorities have been preoccupied with eli- mented it in all domains of the social life, minating politics from the education system, including in that of education. No matter with maintaining it outside its perimeter of its nature, either public, private or con- action, as it had been established through fessional, education was used as a means the Peace Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of in the policy of de-nationalization especially the Minorities.
Ardeal during the interwar period has That is how we could explain their support given birth to acute disputes, protests, 13 Revista de tiine Politice. Temporally, psychically, such an issue within the Ancient morally, but especially politically, the Kingdom; Transylvanian Hungarian minority did - the tensed situation between Romania not wish, nor was it able to accept the and Hungary during and which new social-political situation.
From a generated and fuelled the opposition of dominant, all-ruling nation, warts removal home remedy in tamil the Transylvanian Hungarian leaders towards union, it woke up as a minority, turned Romanian authorities; into equal to those whom it had ex- - the contradiction between the policy of warts removal home remedy in tamil and despised.
Through their leaders, centralisation promoted by the liberal the Transylvanian Hungarians considered governance, adept of a centralised, strong themselves to warts removal home remedy in tamil the successors of the and unitary state and the policy of local, Hungarian state, thus wishing to preserve regional autonomy wished and promoted its old political, social and economic by minorities, especially the German status, they considered themselves to be and Hungarian ones, whose interests and a governing party, at least equal to the privileges were directly affected by the Romanian state.
Placed before the new centralised policy; political reality, they refused to accept it, - the lack of unity of the Romanian po- it became opposed with or without litical class towards the policy that motives, being manoeuvred by Hungary would be applied as regards the united in its revisionist policies. For instance, the leaders of To this was added the presence and the National Peasant Party, especially action of strong international laic, political, the Transylvanian group, were adepts of ecclesiastic centres of Hungarian ethnicity the policy of local autonomy, which was that encouraged and financed the opposition also promoted by the minorities.
Such a and secessionist tendencies of the Hun- policy had its reasons in their state of garians within the area, including from opposition to the liberals, in their desire Ardeal.
Thus they demanded a firm, realist, balanced, lacking excessive nation- more authoritarian behaviour towards the nalism, chauvinism, or with revanchist politics of insubordination and that of not- objectives. Dicionar politic, Editura politic, Bucureti, Furthermore, one must not neglect thep. Ivan, op.
Moreover, one also created the means of dialogue, communication between minorities and Romanian authorities, mi- norities and the Romanian people. In spite of all the shortcomings, the un-fulfilments, loopholes, Romanias policy in the field of national minorities during the interwar period was considered as one of the most 15 Revista de tiine Politice.
In this context, a series of Romanian diplomats Nicolae Titulescu, Take Ionescu, Grigore Gafencu, Hpv mann medikamente Antonescu have tried to intensify the diplomatic, economic and military relations with Great Britain.
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Moreover, during,the Romanian sovereigns Ferdinand and Charles II have paid official visits that contributed to a better knowledge of the two parties as regards the bilateral and also international relations. One must reveal that the press of the time has highlighted in highly-praised terms the relations between the two monarchies noticing the importance of the discussions between the delegations of the two countries.
Keywords: monarchy, international relations, economic interests, official visit, diplomatic instruments. From the very war, maintaining good relations with beginning, Nicolae Titulescu and Take neighbours, and developing relations with Ionescus support, who spotted, among the all countries, both neuter and hostile1.
His first attempts Take Ionescu, Nicolae Titulescu, Grigore in his diplomatic activity there show he Gafencu, Victor Antonescu and others was prove to set as a basic for the future were directed towards amplifying diplomatic, cooperation, the feeling of complete trust.
Nicolae Titulescu, accredited minister I can do cancer orofaringe tnm please the English people is to 16 Revista de tiine Politice. Nicolae Titulescu same time, the right of asking to be told was to promptly criticize this attitude: this only warts removal home remedy in tamil truth about Romania5.
In the year to settling the economic and financial relation come, though political warts removal home remedy in tamil between within a normal frame, by solving Great Britain and Romania were not very litigations coming from previous times, close, the two countries established many such as: war debts, compensations for contacts and ties, at several levels, due to destroying the oil fields, concluding a new their participation in debating and trade treaty that might better respond to the attempting to solving the problems of changes in international economic life and international life in the year of the world better protect bilateral interests; the latter economic crash, facing similar problems8.