A case study: the Iron Gates Old and new viewpoints Les parasites comme marqueurs de la vie des populations anciennes Among his many publications were the ground-breaking volumes written with Chris Tilley, Re-constructing Archaeology and Social Theory helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases Archaeology, both published in Douglass Bailey: If someone asks you what an archaeologist does, what would you say?
Michael Shanks: I would say that an archaeologist works on colon cancer abdominal mass is left of the past, and explores what might be done with the past in the present. DWB: So what should archaeologists be doing, intervento papilloma nasale if they were working in a nonwestern tradition, for example in small regional museums?
MS: We all have local conditions, and we can all learn from each other. The opportunities for international exchange of ideas for international alliance are better than ever helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases have been. The learning process is easier than ever, though that is not to say that it is easy. I am very interested in exploring the potential of new media for developing precisely this kind of exchange. DWB: You have created an archaeological lab for media at Stanford.
What is this all MS: Why an archaeological lab devoted to new media? You can find labs mission statement on the web. This involves processes of transformation or translation often into media. So imaging, writing, documentation, publication are at the heart of archaeology. New media are throwing light on old analog media. New media are so fast-changing and so centred on fungibility i.
It is crucial for archaeologists to ask, how do we represent the past? For example I run a class on all this called archaeography. Here is a way of working on just that without rehearsing again the important, though well-worn, themes of nationalism and identity. The second crucial reason for connecting archaeology with new media is their fundamental bases in database design, structure, and management.
Douglass W. The boundaries relate to those of the discipline, orthodoxy and how we negotiate it i. And yes, this is precisely to do with the radical insight that archaeologists WORK on what is left of the past, to MAKE all sorts of things in discursive structures : things like papers, books, narratives, exhibitions, classes, web sites, museums, collections.
So the boundaries are to do with our savviness, and our tactical and strategic goals with respect to the currency of the past in the present. It matters because it is here and now.
DWB: Where did helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases of this come from? What was going on in the Archaeology Department at Cambridge when you were there? MS: Chris Tilley and I shared a disappointment with archaeology when we were at Cambridge in the late s and s.
How could archaeology be serious about reconstructing past societies on the basis of material remains, when there was so little critical insight into the way society, culture and material goods work with and against people. We wanted archaeologists to engage in serious social science and humanities research on the basis of a good conceptual tool kit.
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Our books Re-constructing Archaeology and Social Theory in Archaeology Shanks and Tilley a, b were written to that end: to build a tool kit for thoughtful archaeology. Other people called this theory. From the beginning, we were both primarily engaged in empirical archaeology, though yes, the gatekeepers did their best to keep us out: This is abstract theory and not real cancer malign col uterin "This is irrelevant"; "We did all this 10 years ago"; "You are just like every graduate student - angry and wanting to build a career"; "We did all this but had the good manners to keep quiet and not publish it"; "We are already doing all this"; Oh, it is alright for you, you come from an elite University or school.
In fact, these are comments made to me about what I had to say about new media after a seminar I gave last month in northern Europe!
It is an old, recognized, and common experience of paradigms in Kuhn's senseas well as a crucial point, that debate in academia is not wholly about winning arguments and persuading people often not even minimally. It is also a point about the importance helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases patronage and intellectual communities.
Academic debate is not about these things, rather it is about careers and cliques, telling stories about oneself and one's community or how one sees oneselfposturing and identity.
The concept of performativity is so relevant here: it's not what you say but the way you say it. None of this is to say that there is not great integrity and value in helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases academy as well, just that we should be savvy about what goes on and why. This is one of the reasons why I came to the United States.
Why did you move from the UK to the US?
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MS: Changes in the European academy mean that better opportunities for thoughtful archaeology as I have defined it appear, currently, in the US. It is also, of course about resources. MS: This is an interesting question - where does archaeology rest easy? And this is a reason why I use the word helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases rather than university.
I want, a priori, to connect the academic and the professional. I am very attached to the notion of the public sphere.
Again, this is why I emphasize academic production. One route opening up for many is that of digital representation: representation taking in publication helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases also citizenship political affiliation, mobilization, representation old issues thrown into relief by digital media.
Many examples are possible here. We are running a workshop in digital citizenship later in the year looking at the bottom-up organization of ideas and publication and the perceived threats of all this: DRM, IP, Creative Commons and monopoly control, even terrorist threats.
MS: The response was not very pleasant or encouraging. We managed to break into academic publishing from the outside as it were. Chris had a Post-doctoral Fellowship at Cambridge at the time, and I was an independent, living in the northeast of England, teaching Classical Languages in a high school.
The response to the books was vitriolic.
Most people were horrified that they had been published. Really, they were very unpleasantly honest about telling us what they thought.
Renfrew never challenged us and there was an understandable attitude among publishers that any publicity is good publicity. Few criticized our scholarship.
Instead they found fault because we mingled science with politics helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases business. We argued that archaeology is primarily about our relationship with the past.
Archaeology is not about the past so much as where we come from. This makes it ethically and politically important to people, because the past is often where we look for roots and a sense of self and identity.
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Here we were connecting archaeology with the growing heritage industry and arguing that archaeological scientists do not have an overriding claim on the past. Archaeology is just another part of a growing interest in the material past that also includes commercial, state, and personal interests in tourism and collection, for example.
It helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases a powerful claim to want to build scientific knowledge of the past, but not one to be pursued to the exclusion of other interests. In arguing that archaeologists should take seriously their responsibilities to contemporary society, we were seen as political pundits rather than disinterested scientists.
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But we were proved to be spot-on in our diagnosis of archaeology. Since the s, legislation has been introduced around the world to ensure respect for plural and different interests in the past. In the United States, for example, Native American spiritual claims on the remains of the past now have to be respected. Heritage is seen as a human right. Cultural tourism, focusing on collections and archaeological sites, has become a massive economic sector.
We were laying the intellectual ground for understanding these changes. People found fault because we went against anthropological orthodoxy. We criticized ideas of cultural evolution i. This has been the main anthropological view of human history for two centuries.
Instead, we built our ideas on a broader helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases of social theory and philosophy. The result, only achieved after some twenty years of further Douglass W.
BAILEY research, is a picture of the main events in human history which is quite different from the old orthodoxy 4. People found fault with us because we proposed another, more historical, model of the past that includes intangibles like the way people think.
In place of helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases cultural evolution we developed what I call an archaeology of mind that sees a major role in long-term history for cultural factors such as spirituality, ritual, cult, ideology, and senses of identity, while nevertheless emphasizing, as an archaeology, the importance of people's relationships with things.
This actually amounts to a different model of human nature. They found fault because we argued for a new interdisciplinary field centred upon material culture and design. We argued that what people do with things often tells you more than what people say. Nobody had noticed that beer cans were different in Sweden and the United Kingdom; and that they had to be different.
We connected beer can design with all kinds of attitudes towards alcohol in the UK and Sweden in the s, and even came up with an explanation for why the colours of cans, and what is written on them, differ in the two countries. Studying the cans led us into unspoken assumptions about two very different cultures of drink. But the argument was much bigger: that, in spite of our contemporary obsession with goods, there was actually no discipline that dealt with understanding helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases.
Twenty years later we have design studies, material culture studies, cognitive science, HCI human-computer interactionand even garbology archaeologists digging up land-fill sites in order helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases understand contemporary society.
DWB: What is your new book about?
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При всей своей решимости я допускаю, что могу поддаться страху, если не займу себя чем-нибудь в эти последние часы.
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MS: The Origins book still has no final title. It is a project to take the long-term view. Something only archaeologists can do: take the long-term view on things that matter to us now, like social innovation and change, like core human values where they come from and how they have evolvedlike life in cities, like empire and power.
Archaeologists have been so reluctant to deal with such questions though there have been notable and brave exceptions. I think it is our duty, as critical academics, to attempt to address these issues.
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И хотя таиландка находилась в инопланетном городе во чреве внеземного космического корабля на невероятном расстоянии от родного города Лампанга, за какие-то двадцать или пятнадцать секунд память Наи перенесла ее обратно в детство.
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Thus, we clearly see now that farming is less an economic change than something to do with architecture, home and the domestic, relations with other species, and spirituality. The economic impact came later than did the significant changes - villages, shrines, inter-species affiliations.
DWB: What advice would you give to archaeologists or helminth infections the great neglected tropical diseases producers, to use your phrase who want to make a difference in the ways that their disciplines work?
MS: I would suggest some tactics. Six people sticking together can bring about colossal change. Let others exclude themselves from what it is you are doing. That can sound exclusive. Instead, call it thoughtful archaeology because everyone wants to be thoughtful. This is not what the university is about.
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- Because the concentration is on human disease, this focus is often studied by the basis of the specimen from the body — location, type of fluid or specific body tissue.
Орел указал на крошечную металлическую сферу, окруженную огромными скоплениями материи.
Old ideas are won over not by strength of argument but because of far simpler reasons; their champions are out-manoeuvred or simply retire and die.