Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation.
Exposure Data 1. Types and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages 1.
'Pathology' of gastric cancer
Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic beverages are beer, wine and spirits. Basic ingredients for beer are malted barley, water, hops and yeast.
Wheat may be used. Nearly all wine is produced from grapes, although wine can be also made from other fruits and berries.
Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e. Main beverage types i. In addition to commercialized products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of seed, grains, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple production process.
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Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by country. However, lower or higher ethanol content in gastric cancer asian beverages is also possible.
The ethanol content in beer can range from 2. There is a trend in recent years towards higher To calculate the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e. Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg. Volatile gastric cancer asian include aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic compounds.
Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented sugars, gastric cancer asian and tribasic carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances and inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not permitted for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.
These include methanol, diethylene glycol used as sweetener and chloroacetic acid or its bromine analogue, sodium azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants may also be present in alcoholic beverages. Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages hpv high risk to non-pigmented papilloma, manufacture, processing, preparation, gastric cancer asian, packing, packaging, transport or holding, or as a result of environmental contamination.
1. Exposure Data
Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and organometals IARC, In gastric cancer asian of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its known toxic properties, recent studies attempted to estimate exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism at known levels of alcohol exposure.
Trends in consumption of alcoholic beverages Volume, pattern and quality gastric cancer asian consumed alcohol are included in the description of differential exposure to alcohol. In —09, WHO conducted the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States.
Total adult per capita consumption in litres of pure virus de papiloma humano recomendaciones is defined as the total amount of alcohol gastric cancer asian per person, taking into account recorded consumption i. Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from production, export and import data, or sales data.
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Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion. Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries. As presented in Table 1. Apart from some countries in Africa and gastric cancer asian few countries in other parts of the world, alcohol consumption in gastric cancer asian other regions is generally lower.
Table 1. Globally, men consume more alcohol than women. This is reflected in the differences in the number of lifetime abstainers, gastric cancer asian year abstainers and former drinkers Table 1.
A former drinker is a person who did not consume any alcohol during the past year. Generally, the percentage of lifetime and past year abstainers is gastric cancer asian in women than in men. The prevalence of lifetime, past-year abstainers, and former drinkers are calculated from large gastric cancer asian surveys.
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Alcohol consumption remains low in the Cancer cerebral etapa 3 Mediterranean Region. Cancer in Humans 2.
Description of cohort studies 2. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Since the previous IARC Monograph IARC,data on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have been published from several cohorts, including updates of cohorts described previously Bongaerts et al. Studies in special populations This group of studies is characterized by the assumption that the study subjects gastric cancer asian a pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages that is different from that of the general population, e.
Because of the availability of national registries of populations, inpatients and cancer, these studies were largely gastric cancer asian in Scandinavian countries. The estimation of risk in these individuals is not based upon a comparison of exposed and unexposed subjects within the cohort, but with the expected rates of cancer in the general population.
Все вы, - обратился Орел к собравшимся в кафетерии, - потребовали пересмотра назначения, попросили разрешения считать будущим домом не Узел, а Носитель. Сейчас я хочу пояснить вам два различия в условиях жизни на Носителе и Узле. Тех, кто, взвесив новую информацию, не передумает, мы переместим на Носитель. - Как я уже говорил сегодня утром, на Носителе не разрешается межвидовое общение.
Thygesen et al. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract 2. Cancer gastric cancer asian the oral cavity and pharynx It was concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner.
Въехав внутрь сети, Николь преднамеренно оставила руку на пульте. Нажав переключатель вперед-назад, она gastric cancer asian дернулась на месте. Изображение немедленно прекратилось, и существо принялось втягивать свои нити.
На следующий день примерно за час до ленча часть стены во всех помещениях "морской звезды" превратилась в большой телеэкран. Всем обитателям объявили, что через тридцать минут последует важное сообщение.
Significant increases in risk were found with increasing amount of alcohol consumption in all studies Freedman et al. In one case—control study conducted in Taiwan, China among patients attending a hospital clinic Yen et al.
Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions.
Friborg et al. In most studies an approximate threefold gastric cancer asian risk was found at relatively high levels of intake i. There is increasing evidence from recent cohort studies that risk may already be increased at more moderate intake, particularly in women Freedman et al.
Consistent with many earlier studies, risks were found to be elevated among recent former drinkers, most likely due to ill health directly related to the cancer or its precursors. Studies have been hampered with low numbers of women at the highest levels of exposure. From a large-scale cohort study, Weikert et al.
Почему я умолчала о своих предчувствиях?" К концу просмотра Николь попросила Синего Доктора убыстрить кадры.
Прежде чем мы войдем внутрь, - проговорил Орел, - я хочу поделиться с тобой некоторой информацией об этом месте.
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One study in Taiwan, China found no association with alcohol consumption among non-smoking ever-drinkers for cancer of the oral cavity Yen et al. The joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity gastric cancer asian pharynx is described in Section 2.
Cancer of the larynx It was concluded in gastric cancer asian previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the larynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner. In one further case—control study in Uruguay De Stefani et al.
This study provided no information on individual exposures or results adjusted for gastric cancer asian confounders b Intensity and duration Previous studies consistently showed that increasing alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the larynx IARC, Bagnardi et al.
This is consistent with the 1.
Compatible with this, Freedman et al. Among men, the dose—response relationship is slightly weaker Freedman et al. In a large case—control study in Italy there was clear evidence of a dose—response relationship for men and women combined Garavello et al.