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Immunotherapy in cancer therapy is a type of treatment discovered in the s. Bladder cancer caused by hpv better understand the types of therapies and their indications and side effects, it requires a review of the immune reaction at the time that tumour cells appear and the mechanisms by which the cell manages to fool the immune response and develop malignant tumours, that metastasize and eventually bladder cancer caused by hpv the host.

Cancer immunotherapy involves the use of therapeutic modalities that lead to a manipulation of the immune system by using immune agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies and humoral, transfection agents.

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We intended to write a review article about immune reactions that take place into onset of cancer and new immunologic treatments developed in last years. Imunoterapia în tratamentul cancerului este o modalitate de tratament descoperită în anii Pentru o mai bună înţelegere a tipurilor de terapii, a indicaţiilor, cât şi a efectelor adverse, este necesară înţelegerea mecanismului reacţiei imune a organismului în momentul apariţiei celulelor tumorale şi a mecanismelor bladder cancer caused by hpv care celula păcăleşte răspunsul imun şi dezvoltă o tumoare malignă care în cele din urmă metastazează şi distruge organismul-gazdă.

Imunoterapia cancerului implică folosirea de modalităţi care duc la manipularea sistemului imun folosind agenţi imuni precum citokinele, vaccinurile, terapiile celulare şi umorale, agenţi de bladder cancer caused by hpv. În acest articol prezentăm reacţiile imune care au bladder cancer caused by hpv în momentul apariţiei celulei tumorale şi noile tratamente imunologice dezvoltate în ultimii ani.

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Immunotherapy in cancer therapy is a type of treatment discovered in the s, with the onset of bladder cancer therapy with BCG and IFN therapy in malignant melanoma 1. There were discovered various immune therapies such as IL 2 cytokine used in solide tumors like melanoma.

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A period of decline of these therapies followed, with powerful side effects and minor results in treatments. Along with studying the mechanisms of immune cells involved in the immune response mediators that cause stimulation or inhibition of the immune response, came the development of  new therapies.

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Hpv no palato immunotherapy involves the use of therapeutic modalities that lead to a manipulation of the immune system by using immune agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies and humoral, transfection agents 2. Tumour cells differ bladder cancer caused by hpv normal cells, by expressing the antigen and biologic behaviour.

Imunoterapia în cancer: mecanismele imunologice şi rolul lor în terapie

Genetic instability is the main generator of the cell cancerous tumour-specific antigens. Recognizing these tumour-specific antigens on the cell surface is the centerpiece of immune stimulation 3.

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Tumour cells express cell surface proteins mutate, fusion proteins or protein aberrantly self expressed, so that the immune system should recognize them. Immunotherapy uses several methods to manipulate the antitumor immune system of the passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies or the induction of systemic cytokine administration of the adjuvant to the tumour microenvironment 4.

Antigens are harmful substances, such as hpv 16 virus simptomi from bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites and they can also appear on bladder cancer caused by hpv cells. Antibodies are proteins that bind antigens and help, for example, to fight infection.

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Antibodies bladder cancer caused by hpv a key component of the adaptive immune response, playing a central role both bladder cancer caused by hpv the recognition of foreign antigens and in the stimulation of an immune response to them. It is not surprising, therefore, that many immunotherapeutic approaches involve the use of antibodies.

Monoclonal antibodies are made bladder cancer caused by hpv a laboratory and are directed against a specific protein in the cancer cells, and they do not affect the cells that do not have that protein.

When they are given to patients, they act like the antibodies the body produces naturally 5.

Types of monoclonal antibodies Two types of monoclonal antibodies are used in cancer treatments: Naked monoclonal antibodies are antibodies without modification. Conjugated monoclonal antibodies are joined to another molecule, which is either toxic to cells, or radio­active.

The toxic chemicals are those typically used as chemotherapy drugs, but other toxins can be used.

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The antibody binds to specific antigens on cancer cell surfaces, directing the therapy to the tumour. Radioactive compound-linked antibodies are referred to as radiolabelled. If the antibodies are labelled with chemotherapy or toxins, they are known as chemolabelled or immunotoxins, respectively.

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When a monoclonal antibody attaches to a cancer cell, it may accomplish the following goals: It stimulates the immune system to destroy the malignant cell Figure 2. This makes it easier for the immune system to find and destroy these cells.

In present, the monoclonal antibodies that target the PD-1 protein, which are intensely studied, are a good example. PD-1 keeps the immune system from recognizing that a cell is cancerous, so drugs that block PD-1 - a new class of drugs - allow the immune system to identify and eliminate the cancer 6.

Prevent cancer cells from growing rapidly.

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Growth factors tell cells to grow by attaching to receptors on the surface of cells. The receptor they attach to is called a growth factor receptor. Cancer cells grow faster than normal cells because they can make extra copies of the growth factor receptor.

Monoclonal antibodies can block these receptors and prevent the growth signal from getting through.