Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation.
Exposure Data 1.
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Types and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages 1. Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic beverages are beer, wine and spirits. Basic ingredients for beer are malted barley, water, hops and yeast. Wheat may be used.
Nearly all wine is produced from grapes, although wine can be also made from other fruits and berries. Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e.
Main beverage types i. In addition to commercialized products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of seed, grains, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple production process.
Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by country.
However, lower or higher ethanol content in base of tongue cancer caused by hpv beverages is also possible. The ethanol content in beer can range from 2. There is a trend in recent years towards higher To calculate the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e.
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Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg. Volatile compounds include aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and base of tongue cancer caused by hpv esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic compounds.
Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented sugars, di- and base of tongue cancer caused by hpv carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances and inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not permitted for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.
These include methanol, diethylene glycol used as sweetener and chloroacetic acid or its bromine analogue, sodium azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants may also be present in alcoholic beverages.
Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions.
Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages due to production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding, or as a result of environmental contamination. Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and organometals IARC, In view of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its known toxic properties, recent studies attempted to estimate exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism at known levels of alcohol exposure.
Trends in consumption of alcoholic beverages Volume, pattern and quality of consumed alcohol are included in the base of tongue cancer caused by hpv of differential exposure to alcohol. Base of tongue cancer caused by hpv —09, WHO conducted the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States.
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Total adult per capita consumption in virus papiloma humano mujer sintomas of pure alcohol is defined as the total amount of alcohol consumed per person, taking into account recorded consumption i. Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from production, export and import data, or sales data.
Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion. Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries.
As presented in Table 1. Apart from some countries base of tongue cancer caused by hpv Africa and a few countries in other parts of the world, alcohol consumption in the other regions is generally lower.
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Table 1. Globally, men consume more alcohol than women.